STUDIES AVAILABLE OF BHRINGRAJ
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Molecular Oncology Lab., Dabur Research Foundation, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad 201010, India.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Eclipta alba is traditionally known to potentiate hair growth promotion. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of methanol extract of Eclipta alba as hair growth promoter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pigmented C57/BL6 mice, preselected for their telogen phase of hair growth were used. In these species, the truncal epidermis lacks melanin-producing melanocytes and melanin production is strictly coupled to anagen phase of hair growth. The extract was applied topically to assess telogen to anagen transition. Immunohistochemical investigation was performed to analyze antigen specificity. Animals in anagen phase of hair growth were positive for FGF-7 and Shh and negative for BMP4, whereas the animals in telogen phase were positive only for BMP4 antigen. RESULTS: The methanol extract of whole plant when tested for hair growth promoting potential, exhibited dose dependent activity in C57BL6 mice. The activity was assessed by studying the melanogenesis in resected skin, follicle count in the subcutis, skin thickness and surrogate markers in vehicle control and extract treated animals. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that methanol extract of Eclipta alba may have potential as a hair growth promoter.
PMID: 19481595 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Department of Biotechnology, University of Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.
We genetically modified Eclipta alba using Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 9402, with the aim of producing secondary metabolites with pharmacological properties against phospholipase A(2) and the myotoxic activities of snake venom. Extracts from in natura aerial parts and roots, both native and genetically modified (in vitro), were prepared and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. In natura materials showed the coumestan wedelolactone at higher concentration in the aerial parts, while demethylwedelolactone appeared at higher concentration in roots. Among the modified roots, clone 19 showed higher concentrations of these coumestans. Our results show that the in natura extracts of plants collected from Botucatu and Ribeirão Preto were efficient in inhibiting snake venom phospholipase A(2) activity. Regarding in vitro material, the best effect against Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was that of clone 19. Clone 19 and isolated coumestans (wedelolactone and demethylwedelolactone) inhibited the myotoxic activity induced by basic phospholipases A(2) isolated from the venoms of Crotalus durissus terrificus (CB) and Bothrops jararacussu (BthTX-I and II). The search for antivenom is justified by the need of finding active principles that are more efficient in neutralizing snake venoms and also as an attempt to complement serum therapy.
PMID: 19320636 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Tamilarasi S, Nanthakumar K, Karthikeyan K, Lakshmanaperumalsamy P.
Department of Biotechnology, Dr. R. V. Arts and Science College, Karamadai, Coimbatore 641 104, India email@example.com
The total heterotrophic bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus were enumerated from the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil of 50 selected locally available medicinal plants in and around Bharathiar University. In all the plants, population of microorganism were higher in the rhizosphere soil than in the non rhizosphere soil. Among the microorganisms, bacterial population was higher in number followed by fungus and actinomycetes. Of the medicinal plants, the maximum rhizosphere effect was observed in Annona squamosa and the minimum effect was seen in Eclipta alba and Cassia auriculata. Among the bacteria the dominant species was Bacillus followed by Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus and Serratia. The Streptomyces species was found to be dominant followed by Deuteromycetes and Frankia among the actinomycetes. Among the fungal isolates Rhizopus was found to be higher in number followed by Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor and Fusarium. About 70.96% of the bacterial isolates were found to be nitrate reducers and 90.60% of the bacteria solubilised phosphate. The rhizosphere bacterial isolates were also capable of hydrolyzing starch, cellulose, casein, urea and gelatin. The isolates of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus were also able to produce phytohormone Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The maximum IAA production was recorded by Fusarium sp (5.8 mg/l). The rhizosphere bacterial isolates showed resistance to 14 commercially used antibiotics. In an attempt to check the influence of these plant growth promoting microorganisms on the antimicrobial property of Coriandrum sativum against Escherichia coli MTCC-443 and Aeromonas hydrophila MTCC-646, the results observed was not encouraging since the inoculants did not influence the antibacterial property. However extensive and in depth study is required to find out the influence of rhizomicroorganisms on the antibacterial property of medicinal plants. The other results clearly indicated that the rhizosphere microorganisms could be exploited for its innumerable properties and active metabolites.
PMID: 18831345 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr HS Gour University, Sagar, MP, India.
Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment.
PMID: 18478241 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Pharmacology, Siddaganga College of Pharmacy, Tumkur-572102, Karnataka.
The occurrence of aggression for prolonged periods of time could have a hazardous impact on the health and social wellbeing of the individual. Aggression can ensue due to exposure to an intimidating situation. Aggression is prominently seen when a disturbance occurs in the fine balance of neurotransmitters such as 5-hydroxytryptamine, gamma- aminobutyric acid, dopamine and their receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the ability of 100 and 200mg/kg of aqueous extract of Eclipta alba to circumvent aggression. Foot shock induced aggression and water competition test were utilized as models for screening of antiaggressive activity. Eclipta alba significantly minimized dominance (p<0.05) which is correlated to the level of aggression particularly with 200mg/kg in the water competition test. A tangible behavioral submission was observed with 100 and 200mg/kg and of Eclipta alba in the foot shock induced test.
PMID: 18390451 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Dwivedi S, Srivastava S, Mishra S, Dixit B, Kumar A, Tripathi RD.
Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, India.
The present investigation was carried out to screen native plants growing in fly-ash (FA) contaminated areas near National Thermal Power Corporation, Tanda, Uttar Pradesh, India with a view to using them for the eco-restoration of the area. A total number of 17 plants (9 aquatic, 6 terrestrial and 2 algal species) were collected and screened for heavy metal (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, B, Si, Al, Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg and As) accumulation. Differential accumulation of various heavy metals by different species of plants was observed. Hydrilla verticillata was found to be the most efficient metal accumulator among 9 aquatic plants, Eclipta alba among 6 terrestrial plants and Phormedium papyraceum between 2 algal species. In general, the maximum levels of most metals were found in terrestrial plants while the lowest in algal species. However, translocation of the metals from root to shoot was found to be higher in aquatic plants than terrestrial ones. These results suggest that various aquatic, terrestrial and algal species of plants may be used in a synergistic way to remediate and restore the FA contaminated areas.
PMID: 18342439 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Pharmacology, Siddaganga College of Pharmacy, Tumkur.
Short and long term memory loss may result from deteriorating cerebral mechanisms due to varied causes which could have a tremendous impact on the quality of life. Herbs are being constantly explored to resolve cognitive deficits. Eclipta alba (Ea) commonly called as the trailing Eclipta is being examined for its memory enhancing quality as it is traditionally used for this purpose. The shade dried leaves of Eclipta alba was extracted with distilled water. The suspension of Ea containing 100 and 200 mg/kg was administered to rats to evaluate Transfer Latency (TL) on an elevated plus maze. TL was a measure of acquisition and retrieval learning. Mice were placed at the center of open field apparatus to assess spatial habitual learning, observed for 20 minutes for rearing and time spent during rearing using varied doses for 30 minutes, 24 hours and 96 hours and 144 hrs. The results revealed significant improvement of retrieval memory.
PMID: 18341224 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Haffkine Institute for Training Research and Testing, Parel, Mumbai.
The anti-malarial activity of Eclipta alba leaves extract was evaluated against Plasmodium'berghei ANKA strain in mice. A standard inoculum of 1 x 10(6) infected erythrocytes was used. The methanolic leaf extract (250-750 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependant chemosupression or schizontocidal effect during early and established infection and high mean survival time (m.s.t.) values particularly in the group administered 750 mg/kg/day of extract. The plant extract also exhibited repository activity. The results of the preliminary studies carried out with E. alba are encouraging, which can be exploited in malaria therapy.
PMID: 18338686 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Reddy SL, Fayazuddin M, Reddy NC, Ahmad A, Reddy GS, Rao PS, Reddy BJ, Frost RL.
Department of Physics, S.V.D. College, Kadapa 516003, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
Leaves of bhringaraj and guduchi herb of Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh, India, are dried and powdered. ICP-MS analysis of samples indicates that copper is present in both the samples. An EPR study of guduchi sample also confirms the presence of Fe(III) whereas Eclipta alba confirms the presence of Fe(III), Mn(II) and Cu(II). Optical absorption spectrum of guduchi indicates that Cu(II) is present in rhombically distorted octahedral environment. NIR and IR results are due to carbonate fundamentals.
PMID: 18280774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. H.S. Gour University, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India.
BACKGROUND: Cuscuta reflexa (Roxb.), Citrullus colocynthis (Schrad.), and Eclipta alba (Hassk.) are traditionally acclaimed herbs for their hair growth-promoting potential. Aim In the present study, it was envisaged to prepare herbal formulations containing petroleum ether extracts of the three herbs in varying ratio and evaluating the formulations for the hair growth-promoting activity. METHODS: The formulations as well as minoxidil (2%) solution (positive control) were applied topically on shaved skin of rats, and the time required for initiation and completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Hair growth initiation time was markedly reduced to one third on treatment with the prepared formulation compared with control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also reduced by 32%. Quantitative analysis of hair growth cycle after treatment with formulations and minoxidil (2%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase compared with control. The results thus corroborate with the traditionally acclaimed hair growth-promoting capabilities of the plants. The prepared formulation also holds potential for treatment of alopecia.
PMID: 17524127 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Centre for Fish Immunology, PG Department of Zoology and Biotechnology, Lady Doak College, Madurai, India.
Immunostimulatory effects of the oral administration of the medicinal plant, Eclipta alba leaf extracts was studied in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. For this purpose, fish were fed for 1, 2 or 3 weeks with diets containing E. alba leaf aqueous extract at 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1% levels. After each week, non-specific humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease and complement) and cellular (myeloperoxidase content, production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species) responses and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. The results indicated that E. alba aqueous extract administered as feed supplement significantly enhanced most of the non-specific immune parameters tested. Among the humoral responses, lysozyme activity significantly increased after feeding with aqueous extract for 1, 2 or 3 weeks. No significant modulation was noticed in all the cellular responses tested after 3 weeks of feeding, while reactive oxygen species production and myeloperoxidase content showed significant enhancement after 1 week of feeding with aqueous extract. When challenged with A. hydrophila after 1, 2 or 3 weeks of feeding, the percentage mortality was significantly reduced in the treated fish. The highest dose of 1% gave better protection than the other doses with the relative percentage survival (RPS) values of 64, 75 and 32 after feeding for 1, 2 and 3 weeks respectively. The results indicate that dietary intake of E. alba aqueous leaf extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of O. mossambicus against A. hydrophila.
PMID: 17499515 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Foods and Nutrition, Post Graduate and Research Center, Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University, Erragadda, Hyderabad, India. email@example.com
The combined effect of dried Eclipta alba leaf powder (3 g/day) in encapsulated form on blood pressure, diuresis, and lipid profile of 60 mildly hypertensive male subjects in the age group of 40-55 years was studied. The subjects were divided into two groups, i.e., a control (placebo) and the Eclipta group, and were given six capsules (500 mg each) per day in three equal doses for a period of 60 days. Clinical parameters, viz., blood pressure, urine volume, electrolytes (Na and K) in serum and urine, lipid profile, and plasma lipid peroxides, were analyzed before and after the feeding trials. The findings revealed that the Eclipta-supplemented group showed a marked reduction in mean arterial pressure by 15%, total cholesterol (17%), low-density lipoprotein fraction (24%), triglycerides (14%), very-low-density lipoprotein fraction (14%), and plasma lipid peroxides (18%). Results also revealed a remarkable increase in urine volume (34%), urine sodium (24%), serum vitamin C (17%), and serum tocopherols (23%) of the Eclipta group. In conclusion, it would appear that E. alba is diuretic, hypotensive, and hypocholesterolemic and helps in the alleviating oxidative stress-induced complications in hypertensives.
PMID: 17472478 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Fish Developmental Genetics and Cell Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuchang, Wuhan 430072, PR China. firstname.lastname@example.org
Immunostimulants are the substances, which enhance the non-specific defence mechanism and provide resistance against the invading pathogenic micro-organism. In order to increase the immunity of shrimps against the WSSV, the methanolic extracts of five different herbal medicinal plants like Cyanodon dactylon, Aegle marmelos, Tinospora cordifolia, Picrorhiza kurooa and Eclipta alba were selected and mixed thoroughly in equal proportion. The mixed extract was supplemented with various concentrations viz. 100 (A), 200 (B), 400 (C), and 800 (D) mgkg(-1) through artificial diets individually. The prepared diets (A-D) were fed individually to WSSV free healthy shrimp Penaeus monodon with an average weight of 8.0+/-0.5g for 25 days. Control diet (E), devoid of herbal extract was also fed to shrimps simultaneously. After 25 days of feeding experiment, the shrimps were challenged with WSSV, which were isolated and propagated from the infected crustaceans. The shrimps succumbed to death within 7 days when fed on no herbal immunostimulant diet (E). Among the different concentrations of herbal immunostimulant supplemented diets, the shrimps fed on diet D (800mgkg(-1)) significantly (P<0.0001) had more survival (74%) and reduction in the viral load. Also the better performance of haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters was found in the immunostimulant incorporated diets fed shrimps. The present work revealed that the application of herbal immunostimulants will be effective against shrimp viral pathogenesis and they can be recommended for shrimp culture.
PMID: 16698283 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Thakur VD, Mengi SA.
C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S. N. D. T. Women's University, Santacruz [W], Mumbai 400 049, India.
The present study deals with the investigation of standardized and phytochemically evaluated aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the plant Eclipta alba for sedative, muscle-relaxant, anxiolytic, nootropic and anti-stress activities. The hydrolyzed fraction of the aqueous extract was also subjected to similar studies in rats. The aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts were administered in a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o., while the hydrolyzed fraction was administered in a dose of 30 mg/kg, p.o. The findings indicated nootropic activity of the aqueous extract (300 mg/kg, p.o.) and its hydrolyzed fraction (30 mg/kg, p.o.). The effect of the extracts on stress-induced alterations was evaluated. The aqueous extract and the hydrolyzed fraction provided protection against cold restraint induced gastric ulcer formation and also normalized the white blood cell count in the milk induced leukocytosis challenge model. The hydroalcoholic extract on the other hand demonstrated a significant effect only in the milk induced leukocytosis challenge model. The results point towards the potential neuropharmacological activity of the plant Eclipta alba as a nootropic and also having the property of attenuating stress induced alterations. Further neurochemical investigations can unravel the mechanism of action of the plant drug with respect to nootropic activity and help to establish the plant in the armamentarium of nootropic agents.
PMID: 16054316 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002, Tamilnadu, India.
Eclipta alba, an indigenous medicinal plant, has a folk (Siddha and Ayurvedha) reputation in rural southern India as a hypoglycemic agent. In order to confirm this claim, the present study was carried out to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of E. alba and to study the activities of liver hexokinase and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase in the liver of control and alloxan-diabetic rats. Oral administration of leaf suspension of E. alba (2 and 4 g/kg body weight) for 60 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose (from 372.0 +/- 33.2 to 117.0 +/- 22.8), glycosylated hemoglobin HbA(1)c, a decrease in the activities of glucose-6 phosphatase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and an increase in the activity of liver hexokinase. E. alba at dose of 2 g/kg body weight exhibited better sugar reduction than 4 g/kg body weight. Thus, the present study clearly shows that the oral administration of E. alba possess potent antihyperglycemic activity.
PMID: 15369623 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2582707
Pharmacy Department, The M.S. University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara 390 001, India.
An attempt has been made to assess the immunomodulatory activity of methanol extracts of whole plant of E. alba (1.6% wedelolactone) and C. asiatica (0.18% of asiaticoside) at five dose levels (dose-response relationship) ranging from 100 to 500 mg/kg body wt. using carbon clearance, antibody titer and cyclophosphamide immunosuppression parameters. In the case of E. alba, the phagocytic index and antibody titer increased significantly and the F ratios of the phagocytic index and WBC count were also significant. Regression analysis showed linearity in patterns of the dose-response relationship, greatest in the case of the phagocytic index, moderate in the WBC count and lowest in the antibody titer. For C. asiatica, significant increases in the phagocytic index and total WBC count were observed and the F ratio of the phagocytic index was also significant. Regressed values revealed maximum linearity in the case of the phagocytic index, moderate linearity in the total WBC count and lowest linearity in the antibody response.
PMID: 15185851 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Principal K. M. Kundnani College of Pharmacy, R. G. Thadani Marg, Worli, Mumbai - 400018, India.
A variety of analgesics are used for the treatment of acute and chronic pain in different disease states. A narcotic or a non-narcotic analgesic that does not cause respiratory depression and addiction is needed. In Ayurveda a large number of indigenous drugs have been mentioned possessing analgesic properties (e.g. Guggul, Erand, Rasna, Bhringaraj, Methika, Palandu and Prasikayavani). The present experimental research work was undertaken to determine the analgesic activity of the total ethanol extract of Eclipta alba, and also the isolated alkaloids of Eclipta alba in albino mice by using standard experimental models such as the tail clip method, the tail flick method and the acetic acid induced writhing response. The results from this study show that both the ethanol extract as well as the total alkaloids produce good analgesic activity in all the different models of analgesia used. The total alkaloidal fraction was the most efficacious in all models tested. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 15022160 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bioassay Unit, R&D Centre, Natural Remedies Pvt Ltd, 5B, Veerasandra Indl Area, Hosur Road, Bangalore 561 229, India.
Wedelolactone (WL) and demethylwedelolactone (DWL) isolated from Eclipta alba were tested in the trypsin inhibition bioassay (in vitro). Both compounds showed potent activity. IC(50) values of WL and DWL were found to be 2.9 and 3.0 microg/mL respectively. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 12722155 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Singh B, Saxena AK, Chandan BK, Agarwal SG, Anand KK.
Division of Pharmacology, Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu Tawi-180 001.
The alcoholic extract of fresh leaves of the plant Eclipta alba (Ea), previously reported for is hepatoprotective activity was fractionated into three parts to chemically identify the most potent bioactive fraction. The hepatoprotective potential of the fraction prepared from extract was studied in vivo in rats and mice against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. The hepatoprotective activity was determined on the basis of their effects on parameters like hexobarbitone sleep time, zoxazolamine paralysis time, bromosulphaline clearance, serum transaminases and serum bilirubin. Fraction EaII (10-80 mg/kg, p.o.) containing coumestan wedelolactone and desmethylwedelolactone as major components with apigenin, luteolin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and protocateuic acid as minor constituents exhibited maximum hepatoprotective activity and is the active fraction for hepatoprotective activity of Eclipta alba leave. The acute toxicity studies have shown that like Ea, Fraction EaII also high safety margin.
PMID: 11883149 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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